Energy consumption is rapidly increasing. From 62,949 TWh (terawatt-hours) in the year 1969 to 173,340 terawatt-hours in 2019, the world’s yearly energy consumption has more than tripled.
By 2020, fossil fuels — oil, coal, and gas – would have provided approximately 80% of the world’s energy. Renewable energy, such as hydropower, the solar, wind, and biofuels, made up a little over 10% of total energy, with nuclear and traditional biomass accounting for the rest. This energy is required for transportation, heating, and electricity generation. Renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectric, solar, and wind, account for about 30% of global electricity.
The disparity in electricity
While 90% of the global population has access to electric power, 760 million individuals do not. The International Energy Agency (IEA) defines access to electricity as the ability of a household to provide:
- five hours of basic lighting with four lightbulbs
- keeping a refrigerator running
- enough electricity to charge a smartphone or run a television for 4 hours every day
- a six-hour-a-day running fan
Less than half of the population in 29 nations, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, has “access to electricity.” More than 90% of Chad’s population lacked access to electricity in 2019. This is in stark contrast to high-income countries, where everyone has access to electricity.
Who is the most energy-hungry?
Norway (26,492kWh), Iceland (56,828kWh), and Bahrain have the highest per capita electricity use (17,133kWh).
Iceland, a frigid Nordic nation with a population of 366,000 people, offers a plethora of renewable energy sources, such as geothermal and hydroelectric. Iceland has also become a cryptocurrency mining hotspot in recent years, with the Icelandic Blockchain Foundation estimating that at least 8% of all Bitcoins have been mined there. Benin, Chad, and Afghanistan, on the other hand, each utilize just under 30kWh per capita.
Electricity is the primary source of energy for most countries.
134 countries (65 percent) rely on fossil fuels for the majority of their electricity, 66 countries (31 percent) on renewables, and 7 countries (4%), on nuclear power. Only five countries – Nepal, Albania, Bhutan, Lesotho, and Paraguay – generate all of their electricity from renewable sources, the majority of which is hydroelectricity generated by dams.
By the 2nd half of this century, the energy transition will have transformed the global energy system from fossil-based to zero-carbon. The need to cut energy-related Emissions of carbon dioxide to mitigate climate change is at its core. Decarbonization of the energy sector necessitates immediate global effort, and while a world energy transition is beginning, additional action is required to cut carbon emissions and prevent climate change’s effects. Energy efficiency and renewable energy initiatives have the potential to reduce carbon emissions by 90%. Information technologies, smart technology, legislative frameworks, and market instruments will all play a role in the energy transition.